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Cng Ngh Thng Tin Trong Nn Kinh T Th Trܩng

Lm Vnh Th
i Hc Saskatchewan


1. Mt Vi nh Ngha v Nim

1.1. X hi thng tin:

T "Information Society", dch sang ting Vit l "X hi thng tin", xut hin t u thp nin 60 trong tc phm The Production and Distribution of Knowledge ca tc gi Fritz Machlup, do Princeton University Press xut bn nm 1962.

Trong tc phm ny, Machlup d xp chung 30 ngnh cng nghip vo 5 nhm: gio dc, nghin cu v pht trin, phng tin truyn thng, my mc thng tin, v, dch v thng tin; ng gi chung tt c 5 nhm ny l khu vc thng tin. Dng cc s thng k ca nm 1958, ng tnh ra rng khu vc thng tin chim ljn 29% GNP (Gross National Product = Tng Sn Lܮng Quc Gia Gp) v s dng 31% lc lܮng lao Ƕng ti Hoa K. ng cng tnh ra rng trong khong thi gian t 1947 ljn 1958, khu vc thng tin bnh trܧng vi tng sut gn gp i so vi tng sut ca GNP. V ng kt lun l x hi Hoa K ang tin nhanh ljn mt hnh thi mi m ng gi l "x hi thng tin".

S tin on ca Machlup ܮc cc tc gi sau ng kim chng v xc nhn. n u thp nin 80, khu vc thng tin s dng ljn 46,6% lc lܮng lao Ƕng ti Hoa K, nh ta thy trong biu sau y:

Table 1.2    U.S. experienced civilian labor force by four sectors, 1800-1980

Sector's percent of total
Year     Agriculture     Industrial     Service     Information     Total            
labor force
(in million)
1800       87.2 1.4 11.3 0.2 1.5
1810       81.0 6.5 12.2 0.3 2.2
1820 73.0 16.0 10.7 0.4 3.0
1830 69.7 17.6 12.2 0.4 3.7
1840 58.8 24.4 12.7 4.1 5.2
1850 49.5 33.8 12.5 4.2 7.4
1860 40.6 37.0 16.6 5.8 8.3
1870 47.0 32.0 16.2 4.8 12.5
1880 43.7 25.2 24.6 6.5 17.4
1890 37.2 28.1 22.3 12.4 22.8
1900 35.3 26.8 25.1 12.8 29.2
1910 31.1 36.3 17.7 14.9 39.8
1920 32.5 32.0 17.8 17.7 45.3
1930 20.4 35.3 19.8 24.5 51.1
1940 15.4 37.2 22.5 24.9 53.6
1950 11.9 38.3 19.0 30.8 57.8
1960 6.0 34.8 17.2 42.0 67.8
1970 3.1 28.5 21.9 46.4 80.1
1980 2.1 22.5 28.8 46.6 95.8

Sources:  Data for 1800-1850 are estimated from Lebergott (1964) with missing data interpolated from Fabricant (1949); data for 1860-1970 are taken directly from Porat (1977); data for 1980 are base on U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics projections (Bell 1979, p.185)

(Ti liu trch dn: The Control Revolution : Technological and Economic Origins of the Information Society / James R. Beniger. Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press, 1986, tr. 24)

1.2. Cng ngh thng tin:

T "Information Technology", gi tt l IT, dch sang ting Vit l "Cng ngh thng tin", ܮc s dng Nj ch chung tt c nhng k thut/cng ngh lin quan ljn vic thu thp, lu tr, x l v truyn t thng tin, bao gm c d kin, m thanh, v hnh nh (Theo ti liu: Information Technology and New Growth Opportunities. Paris : OECD, 1989, tr. 11).

Do , IT bao gm tt c nhng k thut vi-in-t (micro-electronic) v quang-in-t (opto-electronic) ܮc a vo s dng trong cc tin trnh cng nghip sn xut hng tiu dng cng nh trong khu vc dch v. N bao gm tt c cc khu vc cng nghip ch to nh sn xut my in ton, cc my mc dng trong vn phng, cc my mc v vin thng, cc r-b cng nghip, cc ngnh sn xut cc b phn in t, v cc c s sn xut nhu liu (software).

Trong thi gian 10 nm qua, cc pht trin mi ca IT NJu mang 3 ǥc im r nt:
* kh nng sn xut cc b phn in t cng ngy cng nh
*kh nng x l thng tin ca cc b phn in t cng ngy cng tng
*gi thnh sn xut cng ngy cng gim

1.3. Kinh t th trܩng:

ܮc quan nim nh i nghch vi kinh t ch huy (hay kinh t k hoch ha), kinh t th trܩng bao gm cc ǥc im nh sau:
* khng c mt k hoch pht trin chung cho c nܧc
* s can thip ca nh nܧc rt gii hn
* s pht trin ca nn kinh t da vo quy lut c bn ca th trܩng v cung v cu
* s cnh tranh gia cc x nghip, ǥt trn 2 yu t chnh l cht lܮng v gi thnh ca sn phm, ܮc chp nhn v khuyn khch

2. Tm Quan Trng Ca IT Trong Nn Kinh T Th Trܩng

2.1. Th Trܩng IT:

Theo thng k ca OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development = T Chc Hp Tc v Pht Trin Kinh T), nm 1995, th trܩng IT trn ton th gii, ch da vo s thng v ca cc nh sn xut chnh m thi, mang tr gi l 527,9 t M Kim.

Gia 1987 v 1994, tng sut ca IT l gn gp i tng sut ca GDP (Gross Domestic Product = Tng Sn Lܮng Ni a Gp) trn ton th gii, v ǥc bit l rt cao ti khu vc Chu .

Gia 1985 v 1995, th trܩng IT tri qua mt thay i mang tnh c cu, vi hai hܧng r rt. Hܧng th nht l mt s st gim tng i v cng liu (hardware) i nghch li vi mt s gia tng r rt v nhu liu v dch v (software and services). Th d: con s v nhu liu tng t 13,5% ln ljn 18,4%. Hܧng th hai l ring v cng liu, c mt s tng vt ca my in ton c nhn (hay vi-tnh, micro-computers hay personal computers, hay PC) t 21% ln ljn 31%; s my c trung (mini-computers) gim t 30% xung cn 13%; s my c ln (Mainframe) gim t 11% xung cn 4%.

2.2. Th Trܩng Bn Dn (Semiconductors Market):

Trong nhng nm gn y, cng ngh bn dn tri qua mt giai on pht trin cha tng c, ǥc bit ti khu vc Chu . Vo nm 1995, ng Nam cng vi Nht Bn l ni tiu th gn phn na s bn dn ca ton th gii. Triu Tin hin dn u c th gii v mt sn xut cc b nh loi DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memories, tc l loi 16 MB), l khu vc m Nht Bn ch ng trong thp nin 80.

Tr gi ca th trܩng bn dn tng 37% trong nm 1995, sau khi tng Ƕ 30% trong hai nm trܧc . S gia tng gh gm ny l hu qu ca s tng vt ca my in ton c nhn PC.

Trong sut thi gian 1990-1995, tng sut ca s thng v v bn dn ca cc cng ty Chu lun lun dn u nh trong bng thng k sau y:

Tng Sut ca S Thng V Xp theo Cng Ty, 1990-1995

Gia Tng Phn Trm So Vi Nm Trܧc


1990    
1991    
1992    
1993    
1994    
1995    
Cc cng ty Hoa K:       13.2 9.0 18.2 37.1 23.21 30.9
Cc cng ty Nht Bn:       -2.9 10.0 -0.4 25.4 29.5 35.4
Cc Cng ty Chu u:       24.2 3.7 5.2 14.9 28.4 31.2
Cc cng ty Chu :       49.4 29.5 43.2 58.7 58.5 80.7
C th gii: 7.1 9.6 9.3 31.2 28.8 37.2
(Ti liu trch dn:   Information Technology Outlook  1997. Paris : OECD, 1997. Tr. 29.)

2.3. Mc u T V Bn Dn:

Thng k ti chnh th gii cho thy r 2 iu:
* sinh hot u t trong ngnh bn dn bin ǰi tng i theo chu k, ngha l c ln c xung ri ln tr li
* c mt tng quan thun rt r gia mc u t v s thng v, khi u t gia tng th th trܩng ln mnh, khi u t st gim th th trܩng b suy yu

Figure 1.14  Worldwide semicinductor sales and investment, 1985-97 1
Variation from previous year


1. Estimates for 1996, forcasts for 1997.
Souce: OECD Secretariat, based on Dataquest data.

(Ti liu trch dn: Information Technology Outlook 1997. Paris : OECD, 1997. Tr. 31)

Nm 1995, tng s u t ca ngnh bn dn ܧc tnh vo khong 35 t M kim, tng 60% so vi nm 1994. Nhn vo tng khu vc a l, tnh hnh NJu ging nhau, nhng ring ti khu vc Chu , mc u t tng vt rt nhanh.

Figure 1.14  Semicinductor market and investments by region1
Million US$


1. Estimates for 1996.
Souce: OECD Secretariat, based on Dataquest data.

(Ti liu trch dn: Information Technology Outlook 1997. Paris : OECD, 1997. Tr. 32)

Mc Ƕ tp trung trong cng nghip bn dn tip tc gia tng. Nm 1987, 9 cng ty dn u chim 48.9% s thng v, nm 1995, con s ny tng ln ljn 52.5%. L do chnh l v vn u t trong ngnh ny gia tng khng khip. Nm 1970, tnh trung bnh, vn xy ct mt nh my bn dn l vo khong 4 triu M kim, nm 1995, con s ny l vo khong 1,2 t M kim. INTEL vn tip tc l cng ty dn u v sn xut bn dn trn ton th gii.

Figure 1.9  Top 20 semiconductor companies, 1994-95
Million US$ and percentage


Company                  Country             1995         1994         Growth(%) Market share (%)         CAGR
1987/95 (%)        
1987    
1.   Intel United States 13 172 10 099 30.4 8.7 31.3 1 491
2.   NEC Japan 11 314 7 961 42.1 7.5 16.4 3 368
3.   Toshiba Japan 10 077 7 556 33.4 6.7 16.2 3 029
4.   Hitachi Japan 9 137 6 644 37.5 6.0 16.9 2 618
5.   Motorola United States 8 732 7 238 20.6 5.8 17.3 2 434
6.   Samsung Rep. Of Korea 8 329 4 832 72.4 5.5 49.8 328
7.   Texas Instrmt United States 7 831 5 552 41.0 5.2 17.7 2 127
8.   Fujitsu Japan 5 538 3 869 43.1 3.7 15.1 1 801
9.   Mitsubishi Japan 5 272 3 772 39.8 3.5 17.1 1 492
10.  Hyundai Rep. of Korea 4 132 1 521 171.7 2.7 n.a. n.a.
11.   Philips Netherlands 3 901 2 920 33.6 2.6 11.8 1 602
12.   SGS-Thomson France 3 554 2 640 34.6 2.3 19.4 859
13.   IBM United States 3 522 3 035 16.0 2.3 n.a. n.a.
14.   Matsushita Japan 3 476 2 896 20.0 2.3 11.5 1 457
15.   Siemens Germany 3 062 2 090 46.5 2.0 21.2 657
16.   LG Semicon Rep. of Korea 2 863 1 697 68.7 1.9 n.a. n.a.
17.   Sanyo Japan 2 714 2 321 16.9 1.8 15.6 851
18.   Micron Technology Rep. of Korea 2 601 1 492 74.3 1.7 n.a. n.a.
19.   Sharp Japan 2 592 2 188 18.5 1.7 20.3 590
20.   Nat. Semicond. United States 2 408 2 033 19.0 1.6 6.0 1 506
    Other 37 045 27 906 32.7 24.5 n.a. n.a.
    TOTAL: 151 272 110 252 37.2 100.0 18.8 38 251

Source: Dataquest.


(Ti liu trch dn: Information Technology Outlook 1997. Paris : OECD, 1997. Tr. 33).

2.4. Kt Mng v Dch V:

Cho ljn u thp nin 80, phn ln cc h thng thng tin l h thng dng my ln (mainframe). Sang thp nin 80, cng ngh thng tin chuyn sang mi trܩng desktop (desktop environment) vi nhiu my nh (PC) hn. T u thp nin 90, th th trܩng IT li bin chuyn na, v ln ny th nghing hn v hܧng "kt mng" (Network), vi cc k thut v tng quan server-client v v INTERNET hon ton ch ng. Cc k thut ny i hi nhng b nh RAM ln hn, tc Ƕ tnh ton nhanh hn, nhng nhu liu phc tp hn dng cho cc mng v trong INTERNET. Nm 1994, s mng cc b LAN (Local Area Network) trn ton th gii l 4,8 triu. Vo thng 1 nm 1997, s host trn INTERNET l 16,1 triu.

Figure 1.17  Worldwide LAN server installed base, 1994
Total = 4.8 million units


(Ti liu trch dn: Information Technology Outlook 1997. Paris : OECD, 1997. Tr. 34)

Figure 1.19  Number of Internet host worldwide
Million units


(Ti liu trch dn: Information Technology Outlook 1997. Paris : OECD, 1997. Tr. 35 )

Vi gia tng ca vic kt mng, nhu cu v h thng x l (OS = Operating System) v v nhu liu cho cc server gia tng d di. Trong lnh vc cc h thng s dng my ln th UNIX dn u v vic cung cp OS cho cc server. Trong lnh vc LAN, tc cc mng nh, phn ln s dng PC, th Novell gn nh Ƕc chim th trܩng.

Trong khu vc INTERNET, s bn v server gia tng 35%, vi Sun Microsystems dn u. V nhu liu Nj s dng INTERNET, s bn ln ljn gn 1 t M kim trong nm 1995, vi hai cng ty Netscape v Microsoft l hai nh cung cp chnh.

3. Tc ng Ca IT Trn Cc C S Kinh Doanh

3.1. Trn Nng Sut:

Nng sut l mt nim b ngoi c v d hiu nhng tht ra kh rc ri. Ni mt cch n gin thun ty l thuyt th nng sut l t l gia nhp kin (input) v xut kin (output) trong mt h thng sn xut. Nu nhp kin gim m xut kin tng th nng sut tng ln v ngܮc li. Trn thc t th khng n gin nh vy, v nhp kin bao gm nhiu yu t phc tp nh nguyn liu, nng lܮng, thit b, nhn cng, t bn (vn), v c phng thc v tin trnh sn xut. D sao phi nhn rng nng sut l mt yu t cc k quan trng trong s sng cn ca bt c c s kinh doanh no. Bi v n quyt nh gi thnh n v (unit cost) cho cc sn phm hoc dch v m c s kinh doanh cung cp, t gip x nghip n nh gi bn v mc li cho x nghip

Nh trn ni, mun tng nng sut th phi lm th no cho nhp kin gim xung. Trong cc yu t nhp kin k trn ta thy rng cc yu t nguyn liu, nng lܮng v nhn cng chim mt t l rt ln trong chi ph sn xut. Vic p dng IT trong x nghip lm gim rt nhiu cc chi ph loi ny. Cc trang thit b v CAD-CAM (CAD = Computer-Aided Design; CAM = Computer-Aided Manufacturing) gip tm ra phng thc v tin trnh sn xut ti u, va tn dng nguyn liu, va tit kim nng lܮng, v cng va gim bt nhn cng. D nhin, cc trang thit b ny rt l tn km, nn trong giai on u, nng sut c th b st gim do yu t nhp kin t bn qu cao. Nhng sau mt thi gian th kt qu tng nng sut s rt r rt.

Nh trong phn 2.3 Mc u T V Bn Dn, ta d thy mc u t cng nh th trܩng bn dn gia tng ln NJu ǥn mt cch r rt t u thp nin 90. Bng thng k sau y cng cho thy mt s gia tng nng sut NJu ǥn t u thp nin 90 trong cc cng nghip ch bin ti 12 nܧc pht trin trn th gii.

Annual Indexes of manufacturing productivity and related measures, 12 countries.

(1992=100)


Item and country     1990       1991       1992       1993       1994       1995      
United States     95.7 97.9 100.0 103.6 108.1 1119
Canada 95.8 96.3 100.0 103.6 105.6 107.2
Japan 95.4 99.4 100.0 100.5 101.2 106.6
Belgium 95.6 98.7 100.0 104.2 110.1 NA
Denmark 96.0 97.9 100.0 106.4 NA NA
France 99.1 98.7 100.0 101.8 110.4 113.7
Germany 98.2 101.7 100.0 101.2 108.5 112.0
Italy 92.8 95.3 100.0 104.2 106.9 111.2
Netherlands 98.6 99.6 100.0 101.9 109.4 NA
Norway 96.8 96.2 100.0 100.4 102.2 103.1
Sweden 95.0 95.0 100.0 106.7 115.7 119.6
United Kingdom 90.1 94.4 100.0 105.4 109.4 109.4
Output
United States 95.7 97.9 100.0 103.6 108.1 1119
Canada 95.8 96.3 100.0 103.6 105.6 107.2
Japan 95.4 99.4 100.0 100.5 101.2 106.6
Belgium 95.6 98.7 100.0 104.2 110.1 NA
Denmark 96.0 97.9 100.0 106.4 NA NA
France 99.1 98.7 100.0 101.8 110.4 113.7
Germany 98.2 101.7 100.0 101.2 108.5 112.0
Italy 92.8 95.3 100.0 104.2 106.9 111.2
Netherlands 98.6 99.6 100.0 101.9 109.4 NA
Norway 96.8 96.2 100.0 100.4 102.2 103.1
Sweden 95.0 95.0 100.0 106.7 115.7 119.6
United Kingdom 106.4 100.6 100.0 101.2 105.5 107.6

(Ti liu trch dn: Productivity Statistics, trong tp san National Productivity Review, vol. 16, no. 1, winter 1996, tr. 93).

Hin nay ti Bc M, ǥc bit ti Canada, c nhng c gng trong khu vc kinh t t nhn Nj tm hiu, ghi nhn v nh gi mc Ƕ tc Ƕng ca IT trn nng sut trong cc x nghip sn xut hng ha cng nh cung cp dch v. Ti Canada, t vi nm nay, xut hin mt t chc mang tn l Canadian Information Productivity Award (CIPA) vi mc ch hng nm tuyn chn v trao tng gii thܪng cho cc x nghip t ܮc mc tng nng sut cao do p dng IT. Chng ta c th vo INTERNET v džc xem cc hot Ƕng ca CIPA ti URL nh sau: http://www.cipa.com.

3.2. Trn Sn Phm:

3.21. Trn gi thnh ca sn phm:

Khi nng sut tng ln th s hng ha sn xut ra ܮc nhiu hn v nh vy gi thnh n v ca sn phm gim xung. Vic ny s gip cho s bn ca sn phm ca x nghip tng ln v iu ny c ngha l x nghip s thu vo nhiu li nhun hn.

Cc bng thng k sau y ca Vin Thng K Canada (Statistics Canada) cho thy r tc Ƕng ca IT ln gi thnh ca cc sn phm sn xut ti Canada. Tt c cc bng ny NJu da trn ch s 100 ca nm 1986. Ta thy rt r l cc khu vc sn xut hng ha chu tc Ƕng trc tip ca IT, nh b phn v thit b in t, my thu m, vi, truyn hnh, NJu c ch s gi c st gim quan trng trong khong thi gian 1990-1995.

D694127: IPPI 1986


YEAR

Ch S Gi C : Cng Nghip Sn Xut B Phn v Thit B in T

(Ti liu trch dn: Industry Product Price Index. Electronic Parts & Components Industry.
Ottawa : Statistics Canada, 1997. Ly ra t CD-ROM CANSIM ca Statistics Canada)

P800231: CPI, 1992 CLASS, CDA, 1986


YEAR

Ch S Gi Tiu Th : Thit B v Dch V Gii Tr Trong Nh

(Ti liu trch dn: Consumer Price Index. Home Entertainment Equipment & Services. Ottawa : Statistics Canada, 1997. Ly ra t CD-ROM CANSIM ca Statistics Canada)


P800232: CPI, 1992 CLASS, CDA, 1986


YEAR

Ch S Gi Tiu Th : Thit B V m Thanh

(Ti liu trch dn: Consumer Price Index. Audio Equipment. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1997. L y ra t CD-ROM CANSIM ca Statistics Canada)

P800234: CPI, 1992 CLASS, CDA, 1986


YEAR

Ch S Gi Tiu Th : Thit B Vi

(Ti liu trch dn: Consumer Price Index. Audio Equipment. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1997. Ly ra t CD-ROM CANSIM ca Statistics Canada)

3.22. Trn cht lܮng ca sn phm:

c nng sut tng, gi thnh ca sn phm gim, cc x nghip cn cn phi sn xut nhng sn phm c cht lܮng cao mi mong sng cn v ln mnh trong nn kinh t th trܩng ǥt c s trn cnh tranh. IT cng s ng mt vai tr rt quan trng trong lnh vc ny. IT s gip cc x nghip trong vic thit k v sn xut ܮc nhng sn phm va p, va "thng minh" bng cch ci ǥt vo trong cc sn phm ny nhiu loi chng trnh (program) Nj tha mn gn nh tt c nhng yu cu ca ngܩi tiu th. Th d v nhng "sn phm thng minh" (smart products) ny c rt nhiu trong mi cng nghip, ch xin k ra mt vi sn phm tht thng dng. Cc nhu liu v x l vn bn (word-processing software) ph bin hin nay NJu c cc kh nng sau y: sa li chnh t, sp xp trnh by vn bn theo yu cu ca ngܩi s dng (theo li th t, theo li bo co...), vv. Cc my vi NJu c kh nng t Ƕng thu cc chng trnh pht hnh trn truyn hnh theo ng thi kha biu do ngܩi s dng n nh trܧc. Cc h thng in thoi trong cng t s NJu ܮc chng trnh ha (programmed) Nj thu bng cc c gi ljn khi ngܩi ܮc gi khng c mt, Nj chuyn cc c gi ljn mt my khc, Nj c th hp hi ngh bng in thoi (teleconferencing), vv. Ai cng bit rng trong vng 10 nm qua, cc my in ton c nhn (PC) khng nhng st gim gi bn rt nhiu m cn gia tng kh nng ca my ljn mc kh tܪng tܮng ni v mi mt : tc Ƕ tnh ton, b nh RAM, sc cha d kin, vv.

3.3. Trn T Chc V Qun L X Nghip

3.31. Trn c cu t chc ca x nghip:

Vai tr ca IT trong h thng t chc ca x nghip cng ngy cng tr nn quan trng. IT tr thnh mt b phn khng th thiu ܮc ca mi x nghip. Trong nhng cng ty ln, loi a-quc-gia (multinational), mt chc v hon ton mi m ܮc to ra, Chief Information Officer, hay CIO, Nj chu trch nhim v ton b h thng thng tin ca x nghip. Chc v ny thܩng ܮc xp cp Ph Ch Tch Cng ty (Vice-President, hay VP) ngha l cp rt cao trong x nghip. cc cng ty nh hn, i a s NJu c mt b phn cp Phng/Ban (Department) chu trch nhim v IT, thܩng ܮc gi l Systems Department.

Vic thit k v thc hin IT trong h thng t chc ca x nghip rt phc tp, i hi nhiu u t suy ngh trong vic k hoch ha. Mt iu chc chn s xy ra l mt s thay ǰi rt su rng v mang tnh c cu trong m hnh t chc ca x nghip. S thay ǰi c cu ny ch mang ljn thnh cng vi iu kin c mt thay ǰi su xa v np suy ngh v hnh Ƕng t cp lnh o x nghip ljn ton th nhn vin. T khong hn mt thp nin tr li y, ngܩi ta ni rt nhiu v hin tܮng ǰi mi ny, t "reengineering" ܮc s dng Nj ch hin tܮng . Phi phn bit r l "reengineering" i xa hn "innovation" rt nhiu, n khng phi ch n thun l ǰi mi ci c ang c, m l khi s mt ci hon ton mi. V trn ht, m hnh t chc ca x nghip phi l mt m hnh "m" (open), ngha l phi c tnh linh Ƕng, lun lun sn sng c th bin ǰi Nj thch hp vi nhng tc Ƕng mi t bn ngoi.

Cc m hnh sau y cho thy r s phc tp ca vic thit k v thc hin IT trong h thng t chc ca x nghip:

Figure I.2. Phase by Phase Development of Key Ingredients for Effective IT Implementation


Key Ingredients     Phase One
Generating the Context for IT      
       Phase Two
Designing an IT System      
       Phase Three
Putting the IT System into Practice      
-------- ---------- -------- --------
Alignment Vision aligned
with business, organization, and technology strategies
System design aligned with vision Operational use of system aligned with vision
Commitment/ Support/ Ownership HIgh organizational commitment; stake-holder support for IT System designed to tap and promote user ownership Users feel strong ownership for system
Competence/ Mastery General task competence and IT literacy System designed to use and promote mastery Users mastering the system

(Ti liu trch dn: Up and Running : Integrating Information Technology and the Organization / Richard E. Walton. Boston, Mass. : Harvard Business School Press, 1989. Tr. 5)

Figure 1-1. Factors in the Development of Effective Organizations


(Ti liu trch dn: Up and Running : Integrating Information Technology and the Organization / Richard E. Walton. Boston, Mass. : Harvard Business School Press, 1989. Tr. 14).

S t chc ca x nghip s b bin dng rt nhiu. Ni chung hnh thi t chc m cc x nghip s dng trong sut thi i pht trin cng nghip (Industrial Age) khng cn thch hp trong thi i thng tin (Information Age) ny na. Cc m hnh sau y cho thy s khc bit ln lao ny:

THE ORGANIZATION CHART - INDUSTRIAL AGE



(Ti liu trch dn: Worklife Visions : Redefining Work for the Information Economy / Jeffrey J. Hallett. Alexandria, Va. : American Society for Personnel Administration, 1987. Tr. 132).


THE ORGANIZATION CHART - INFORMATION AGE


(Ti liu trch dn: Worklife Visions : Redefining Work for the Information Economy / Jeffrey J. Hallett. Alexandria, Va. : American Society for Personnel Administration, 1987. Tr. 134).3.32.

3.32. Trn qun l nhn vin:

Qun l nhn vin (QLNV) l mt lnh vc v qun l kh phc tp. Ban/Phng Nhn vin khng nhng phi lun lun nm vng tnh hnh bin ǰi lin tc v s ngܩi x nghip s dng, m cn phi lun lun gii quyt cc vn NJ tuyn chn, hun luyn, iu Ƕng, thng thܪng, k lut, lng bng, quyn li ca nhn vin x nghip. lm tt tt c cc mt cng tc ny, mt h thng thng tin tht hon ho cn phi c. H thng ny bao gm nhiu b phn c quan h hu c vi nhau, ci ǥt trong mt mng cc b (LAN), hay ngay c trong mt mng rng ln (WAN = Wide Area Network) bao trm ton b c s khp ni ca mt x nghip loi ln. Mi b phn trong h thng s m trch mt chc nng thng tin khc nhau, th d nh, thng k, phn loi nhn vin, kh nng chuyn mn ca nhn vin, lng bng, k hoch, d n, vv. Nhng pht trin ca IT trong 10 nm va qua gip gii quyt cc nhu cu v QLNV mt cch rt c hiu qu. Cc b nhu liu (software packages) v QLNV hin ܮc s dng rt rng ri trong mi x nghip ln nh, gip cc nh qun l thit lp, thc hin, v theo di cc phng n v QLNV vi hiu nng rt cao.

Trong lnh vc QLNV, hun luyn l mt b phn rt quan trng. Vi pht trin ca khoa hc k thut hin nay ni chung, v ca IT ǥc bit ni ring, vic hun luyn nhn vin mt cch thܩng xuyn tr thnh mt quy lut cho tt c cc x nghip. Khng nhng nhn vin ca x nghip cn phi lun lun ܮc trang b kin thc mi v chuyn mn m h cn cn phi ܮc cp nht khng ngng v nhng i hi mi v ngy cng nhiu ca h thng php lut lin quan ljn ngnh hot Ƕng ca x nghip, nht l nhng quy nh v mi trܩng, v sc kho v an ton lao Ƕng (environment, and occupational health and safety). Nu x nghip sn xut hng Nj xut khu th li cn phi tun theo nhng tiu chun v mt hng v nhng quy nh v lut php ca nܧc mua hng. Nhng pht trin mi ca IT c th gip rt nhiu vo vic hun luyn ny. Cc b nhu liu a-phng, tng-tc v hun luyn (multi-media interactive training packages) ܮc a vo s dng trong cc mng cc b LAN, mt mt gim bt rt nhiu v chi ph hun luyn, mt khc li to ܮc hiu nng rt cao v kt qu hun luyn.

Cng trong lnh vc QLNV, mt loi hnh nhn vin mi cha tng c trong qu kh xut hin. l nhng nhn vin lm vic ti nh. y khng phi l loi cng nhn sn xut hng ha ti nh, ܮc x nghip k (hoc khng k) hp ng v tr th lao theo sn phm (piecework), c t lu trong cc loi cng nghip sn xut hng ha (manufacturing industries), nh ngnh may mc chng hn. Nhng nhn vin loi ny l nhng nhn vin thc th ca x nghip, vi y quy ch v lng bng v quyn li, nhng thay v ljn lm vic ti c s ca x nghip, h lm vic ngay ti nh ca h, vi mt my in ton c nhn ܮc ci ǥt vo mt LAN hay mt WAN ca x nghip, gip h lm vic mt cch d dng nh ang hin din ti x nghip. Mt danh t mi ܮc ǥt ra Nj ch li lm vic ny, l t "telecommuting". Loi hnh nhn vin hon ton mi l ny ǥt ra nhiu vn NJ mi m m cc Phng/Ban Nhn vin phi gii quyt, th d nh, vn NJ tuyn chn, kim sot, thng tin, hp hnh, an ton lao Ƕng, nh gi nhn vin, vv. (Worklife Visions : Redefining Work for the Information Economy / Jeffrey J. Hallett. Alexandria, Va. : American Society for Personnel Administration, 1987. Tr. 68-70). Ring ti Canada, tnh ljn nm 1994, mt cuc thm d ca Conference Board of Canada vi khong 250 c quan x nghip ln, cho thy khong 10,5% cc c quan x nghip ny c s dng loi hnh nhn vin ny. Cng ty Bell Canada (in thoi) c 2500 nhn vin loi ny trn tng s 37.000 nhn vin (tc khong 7%), v cng ty IBM Canada (my in ton) c 800 nhn vin loi ny trn tng s 10.200 nhn vin (tc khong 8%) (Telecommuting : A Trend Towards the Hoffice ? / Liza A. Provenzano. Kingston, Ont. : Queen's University, Industrial Relations Centre, 1994).

3.33. Trn t chc sn xut v phn phi:

Nh phn trn trnh by, IT, qua cc loi nhu liu CAD-CAM, v CIM (Computer-Integrated Manufacturing) ng gp rt nhiu trong vic tng nng sut cho cc x nghip. Khng nhng th, IT cn tc Ƕng mnh ln ton b h thng t chc sn xut v phn phi ca cc x nghip.

Trong ngnh sn xut xe hi, cc rb gn nh hon ton thay th cng nhn trong b phn hn khung xe. Trong ngnh vn phng, cc my in ton c nhn PC vi cc nhu liu x l vn bn (wordprocessing packages) hon ton thay th cc my nh ch in trong vic sn xut cc cng vn giy t. V gn y, h thng in th (electronic mail, hay e-mail) cng mt phn ln thay th cho cc cng vn trong ni b x nghip.

Trong c gng "reengineering" t chc sn xut, cc x nghip phi duyt xt li tt c cc khu trong dy chuyn sn xut, vi mc tiu l ch gi li nhng khu "ct li" (core), cn phi ܮc thc hin ti x nghip. Nhng khu thuc loi "Ngoi vi" (peripheral, hay, non-core) c th ܮc a ra sn xut bn ngoi theo hp ng (danh t mi by gi gi l outsourcing) nu tha mn ܮc hai iu kin sau y: bo m ܮc cht lܮng do x nghip n nh, v, quan trng hn, vi chi ph thp hn. "Outsourcing" ǥc bit v cng quan trng trong khu vc dch v, v vi cc k thut mi ca IT, nh cc k thut Web (Web Technologies), k thut FTP (File Transfer Protocol), e-mail, vic trao ǰi thng tin, ngay c chuyn i nhng h s in t (file) c ln, vi vn bn (text), th, m hnh, tranh nh (graphics), m thanh (sound), gia x nghip v nh thu, tr nn v cng d dng.

V phng din phn phi sn phm, INTERNET m ra nhng c hi mi cho cc cng tc tip th (marketing), qung co (advertising), cng nh phn phi sn phm (distribution). S cng ty bn hng qua INTERNET cng ngy cng gia tng.

4. Kt Lun

Nn kinh t th gii ang chuyn sang mt hnh thi mi, ǥt c s trn mt x hi thng tin. Ngܩi ta bt u tho lun ngy cng nhiu v vn NJ "nn kinh t ǥt c s trn kin thc" (knowledge-based economy) Nj i li vi "nn kinh t ǥt c s trn ti nguyn thin nhin" (resource-based economy). Trong hnh thi kinh t x hi mi ny, ti nguyn chnh s l thng tin, th hin qua con ngܩi vi kin thc cao. Thng tin l mt dng ti nguyn khng nhng c th ti to (renewable) m cn c th nhn ln (multipliable). u t trong hnh thi kinh t x hi ny, nht l trong khu vc dch v, li khng cn ljn nhng s vn khng l nh khai thc ti nguyn thin nhin (nh du kh chng hn) nhng ngܮc li c th mang li li nhun rt cao. Doanh nhn Vit Nam nn tp trung hܧng u t vo lnh vc ny. Chi ph lao Ƕng ca chng ta li cn rt thp so vi cc nܧc pht trin nn cng to thm li th cho ta trong s cnh tranh vi nܧc ngoi. Tuy nhin trong bt c lnh vc kinh doanh no chng ta phi nh rng IT lun lun ng mt vai tr rt quan trng, nh li khuyn sau y ca tc gi Martin K. Gay : "Cc x nghip kinh doanh mun nm ܮc li th cnh tranh th phi bo m l "thng tin" c ܮc u tin cao trong t chc ca x nghip v ngay c trong thnh phm m x nghip phn phi" (The New Information Revolution : A Reference Handbook / Martin K. Gay. Santa Barbara, Calif. : ABC-CLIO, 1996. Tr. 3-4).

1999, Lm Vnh Th   vinhthe.lam@usask.ca


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